A Critical Review of Washback Studies: Hypothesis and Evidence

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter aims to demonstrate the current understanding of washback effects in the context of language testing and language education from the following three perspectives: (1) demonstrating the historical development of the concept of washback in both general education and language education, (2) elaborating the results of the empirical investigations and highlighting the gaps between hypotheses and evidence and (3) identifying the directions and areas for washback studies in future.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSecond Language Learning and Teaching
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameSecond Language Learning and Teaching
ISSN (Electronic)2193-7648


  • Assessment
  • Impact
  • Washback


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