A Study of Adaptive Gambling Behavior of Casino Employees in Macau

Zhonglu Zeng, David Forrest, Sudhir H. Kale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain gambling prevalence and addiction among various populations—the exposure hypothesis and the adaptation hypothesis. This study tests these hypotheses in the context of casino employees in Macau. In the etiology of gambling, casino employees have been considered a unique segment of the population. Employees working in casinos are probably more exposed to gambling stimuli than any other group. The findings suggest that indicators of heavy involvement in casino gambling among casino employees were no higher than among other residents of Macau. In terms of gambling frequency, casino employees actually gambled less often than the general adult population in Macau. These results are in contrast to results from studies of gaming venue employees in Australia and Canada. The differing findings are probably attributable to particularities of Macau discussed in the article.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-367
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Gambling Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Adaptation hypothesis
  • Casino employees
  • Exposure hypothesis
  • Gambling duration
  • Gambling frequency
  • Macau


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