Camera-Based Smart Parking System Using Perspective Transformation

Bowie Liu, Hawking Lai, Stanley Kan, Calana Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of the “smart city” has emerged with the advancement of technology, but some facilities are not sufficiently intelligent, such as parking lots. Hence, this paper proposes an inexpensive and plug-to-play camera-based smart parking system for airports. The system utilizes inverse perspective mapping (IPM) to provide an aerial view image of the parking lot, which is then processed to extract parking space information. The system also includes a guidance system to assist drivers in finding available parking spaces. The system is simulated on a 3D scene based on the parking lot of Macao International Airport. In the experiment, our system achieved an accuracy rate of 97.03% and a mean distance error of 8.59 pixels. This research study shows the potential of enhancing parking lots using only cameras as data collectors, and the results show that the system is capable of providing accurate and useful information. It performs well in parking lots with open space, in particular. Moreover, it is an economical solution for implementing a smart parking lot.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1167-1184
Number of pages18
JournalSmart Cities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Canny edge detector
  • Dijkstra algorithm
  • YOLOv5
  • inverse perspective mapping
  • smart city
  • smart parking


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