Determination of parabens in breast milk using stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with UHPLC-UV

Xue Ge, Senwei Feng, Linlin Bian, Mingjuan Wang, Kefeng Li, Xu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We developed an analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, using a stir bar coated with amino/hydroxyl bifunctional microporous organic network (B-MON), for the analysis of parabens in breast milk samples. B-MON demonstrated superior performance with maximal methylparaben adsorption of 112.15 mg/g. Kinetic fitting revealed that outer diffusion was the key limiting step, and the adsorption was chemisorption. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that increased methylparaben adsorption was found at higher temperatures in spontaneous processes. The developed approach showed excellent linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9964) and a low detection limit (0.01 μg/L). Recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 105.5 % and the relative standard deviation was lower than 9.2 %. Based on the daily exposure assessment, these pollutants do not pose unacceptable health hazards to babies. However, the high detection frequencies (41.9%–93.5 %) suggest that breast milk still should be monitored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125609
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • Adsorption
  • Human breast milk
  • Infants
  • Parabens
  • Stir bar sorptive extraction
  • Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography


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