Development and Validation of a PLEs Scale from the Learner and Learning Perspective in Tertiary Education

Xiaoshu Xu, Yunfeng Zhang, Kexin Zhong, Vivian Ngan Lin Lei, Jia Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The study's goal is to create and validate a Personal Learning Environments Scale (PLEsS) from the learner and learning perspective (named PLEsS-LL) to ensure effective learning in Chinese tertiary education. 657 undergraduates participated in the study after completing scale development steps. Six factors were extracted from the PLEsS-LL using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported the six-factor scale with 22 items. Furthermore, the PLEsS-LL was redesigned as a questionnaire to assess learners' readiness for PLE learning. The findings indicated that participants were comfortable when learning in PLEs in general. They were mostly positive in terms of learning motivation and problem-solving abilities. They did, however, report less confidence in Self-directed Learning. Meanwhile, male participants outperformed female participants in all categories except learning motivation. The reasons were explained, and suggestions for future PLEs design were made. The PLEsS-LL could be used as a resource or guide for learner preparation in the PLEs context in higher education around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
JournalRevista de Educacion a Distancia
Issue number71
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • learner
  • Personal Learning Environment
  • PLE
  • scale
  • Tertiary education


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