Energy-efficient beaconless geographic routing in wireless sensor networks

Haibo Zhang, Hong Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Geographic routing is an attractive localized routing scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to its desirable scalability and efficiency. Maintaining neighborhood information for packet forwarding can achieve a high efficiency in geographic routing, but may not be appropriate for WSNs in highly dynamic scenarios where network topology changes frequently due to nodes mobility and availability. We propose a novel online routing scheme, called Energy-efficient Beaconless Geographic Routing (EBGR), which can provide loop-free, fully stateless, energy-efficient sensor-to-sink routing at a low communication overhead without the help of prior neighborhood knowledge. In EBGR, each node first calculates its ideal next-hop relay position on the straight line toward the sink based on the energy-optimal forwarding distance, and each forwarder selects the neighbor closest to its ideal next-hop relay position as the next-hop relay using the Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send (RTS/CTS) handshaking mechanism. We establish the lower and upper bounds on hop count and the upper bound on energy consumption under EBGR for sensor-to-sink routing, assuming no packet loss and no failures in greedy forwarding. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expected total energy consumption along a route toward the sink under EBGR approaches to the lower bound with the increase of node deployment density. We also extend EBGR to lossy sensor networks to provide energy-efficient routing in the presence of unreliable communication links. Simulation results show that our scheme significantly outperforms existing protocols in wireless sensor networks with highly dynamic network topologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5089321
Pages (from-to)881-896
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Volume21
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Beaconless geographic routing
  • Energy-efficient.
  • Power-aware routing
  • Wireless sensor networks

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