Experimental Study of Bluetooth Indoor Positioning Using RSS and Deep Learning Algorithms

Chunxiang Wu, Ieok Cheng Wong, Yapeng Wang, Wei Ke, Xu Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Indoor wireless positioning has long been a dynamic field of research due to its broad application range. While many commercial products have been developed, they often are not open source or require substantial and costly infrastructure. Academically, research has extensively explored Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) for positioning, yet there are a noticeable lack of studies that comprehensively compare traditional algorithms under these conditions. This research aims to fill this gap by evaluating classical positioning algorithms such as K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Weighted K-Nearest Neighbor (WKNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), and a Received Signal Strength-based Neural Network (RSS-NN) using BLE technology. We also introduce a novel method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), specifically tailored to process RSS data structured in an image-like format. This approach helps overcome the limitations of traditional RSS fingerprinting by effectively managing the environmental dynamics within indoor settings. In our tests, all algorithms performed well, consistently achieving an average accuracy of less than two meters. Remarkably, the CNN method outperformed others, achieving an accuracy of 1.22 m. These results establish a solid basis for future research, particularly towards enhancing the precision of indoor positioning systems using deep learning for cost-effective, easy to set up applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1386
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • BLE indoor positioning
  • convolutional neural network
  • received signal strength


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