How consumer opinions are affected by marketers: an empirical examination by deep learning approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The natural language processing (NLP) technique enables machines to understand human language. This paper seeks to harness its power to recognise the interaction between marketers and consumers. Hence, this study aims to enhance the conceptual and future development of deep learning in interactive marketing. Design/methodology/approach: This study measures cognitive responses by using actual user postings. Following a typical NLP analysis pipeline with tailored neural network (NN) models, it presents a stylised quantitative method to manifest the underlying relation. Findings: Based on consumer-generated content (CGC) and marketer-generated content (MGC) in the tourism industry, the results reveal that marketers and consumers interact in a subtle way. This study explores beyond simple positive and negative framing, and reveals that they do not resemble each other, not even in abstract form: CGC may complement MGC, but they are incongruent. It validates and supplements preceding findings in the framing effect literature and underpins some marketing wisdom in practice. Research limitations/implications: This research inherits a fundamental limitation of NN model that result interpretability is low. Also, the study may capture the partial phenomenon exhibited by active reviewers; lurker-consumers may behave differently. Originality/value: This research is among the first to explore the interactive aspect of the framing effect with state-of-the-art deep learning language model. It reveals research opportunities by using NLP-extracted latent features to assess textual opinions. It also demonstrates the accessibility of deep learning tools. Practitioners could use the described blueprint to foster their marketing initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-614
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Research in Interactive Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2022


  • Big Data
  • Framing effect
  • Language model
  • Market interaction
  • NLP


Dive into the research topics of 'How consumer opinions are affected by marketers: an empirical examination by deep learning approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this