3,3′,4′,4′,5-Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB126) is classified as a persistent organic environmental pollutant that can cause liver damage by producing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS also can stimulate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation, which cause damage to organism if NETs are produced in excess. Melatonin is generally considered to possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammation prosperities, but it is unclear whether it can alleviate PCB126-induced injury. To explore whether PCB126-induced liver injury is related to the formation of NETs and whether melatonin has a potent protective effect, we established PCB126 exposure/ PCB126 and melatonin co-treatment mouse models by gavage. To further clarify the specific mechanism, we also cultured neutrophils and AML12 cells to replicate in vivo model. Here, we found PCB126 exposure resulted in an elevation in the activities of MDA, LPO, PCO, and 8-OHdG, and a reduction in the activities of CAT, GSH-PX and SOD. We found that PCB126 exposure led to an elevation in the expression levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL12, and CXCL8) and marker factors for NETs formation (MPO, NE, NOX2, PKCα, and PKCζ) in the PCB126 group. IF, SYTOX staining, and SEM results also revealed that PCB126 could stimulate NETs formation. In addition, results of a co-culture system of PBNs and AML12 cells revealed that the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) significantly decreased and the expression levels of metabolism factors (Fas, Acc, and Srebp) slightly decreased for scavenging NETs, indicating NETs formation aggravated PCB126-induced hepatic damages. Noteworthy, treatment with melatonin reversed these results. In summary, our findings revealed that melatonin alleviated hepatic damage aggravated by PCB126-induced ROS-dependent NETs formation through suppressing excessive ROS production. This finding not only enriches toxicological mechanism of PCB126, but more importantly extends biological effects of melatonin and its potential application values.
- 3,3′,4′,4′,5-Polychlorinated biphenyls
- Hepatic inflammation
- Lipid metabolism disorder
- Neutrophil extracellular traps
- Reactive oxygen species