Interpreting the mixed model of sustained engagement in online gamified learning: A dual analysis based on MPLUS and FSQCA

Fanbo Li, Hongfeng Zhang, Cora Un In Wong, Xiaolong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the intricate causal mechanisms of sustained engagement in long-term online gamified learning among university students, situated within the theoretical frameworks of TAM, ECT, and TPB. Employing a purposive sampling strategy, 1551 university students from the Greater Bay Area of China were included in the study. Methodologically, sophisticated statistical analyses, including Mplus for measurement and path analyses, and fsQCA for configurational analysis, were conducted. The results highlight significant insights: perceived entertainment positively influences attitude confirmation and sustained engagement; individual characteristics positively impact perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; a chain-mediated effect intricately links usage expectation, individual characteristics, perceived entertainment, and sustained engagement; immersion experience moderates the relationship between perceived entertainment and sustained engagement. Furthermore, these pivotal factors dynamically configure themselves in diverse pathways, collectively shaping students' sustained engagement behavior through intricate interactions. The research findings have revealed various mechanisms of college students' sustained engagement in online gamified learning, offering detailed insights into the profound and indirect influences shaping sustained engagement behavior. This enriches and advances the current theoretical understanding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100643
JournalEntertainment Computing
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Configurational effects
  • Online gamified learning
  • Structural equation model
  • Sustained engagement


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