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5 Citations (Scopus)


Metacognition is a type of individual difference. In the field of educational psychology, metacognition has been explored for decades with the consensus that it plays a role in learners' academic achievement. Increasing attention has also been paid to metacognition in the field of second language learning. Through an overview of educational psychology and second language acquisition studies, this chapter explores the construct of metacognition and provides a theoretical basis for metacognition in second language learning. The chapter highlights the importance of metacognition as a tool for language learning and teaching. This chapter also introduces key instruments for assessing metacognition, and presents research findings that support metacognitive instruction for improving listening, reading, and writing outcomes. Research suggests that students should be aware of how they can activate their existing knowledge to enhance the language learning process, build an awareness of their knowledge gaps and set goals for bridging these gaps. Language teachers play a key role in supporting their students in developing metacognitive awareness through modeling metacognitive strategies. Most importantly, language teachers themselves should be metacognitively aware of their own teaching to help students' language learning.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCognitive Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition
Subtitle of host publicationTheories, Assessment and Pedagogy
Publisherde Gruyter
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781614514749
ISBN (Print)9781614516767
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Assessing metacognition
  • Metacognition
  • Metacognitive experiences
  • Metacognitive knowledge
  • Metacognitive regulation


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