Molecular Mechanism of Ca2+in the Allosteric Regulation of Human Parathyroid Hormone Receptor-1

Mengrong Li, Miaomiao Li, Jingjing Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an endogenous ligand that activates the PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R) signaling. Ca2+, a common second messenger, acts as an allosteric regulator for prolonging the activation of PTH1R. However, a clear picture of the underlying allosteric mechanism is still missing. Herein, extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for PTH1R-PTH complexes with and without Ca2+ions, allowing us to delineate the molecular details of calcium-induced allostery. Our results indicate that acidic residues in the extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) (D251, E252, E254, and E258-E260) and PTH (E19 and E22) serve as key determinants for local Ca2+-coupling structures and rigidity of ECL1. Moreover, the binding of Ca2+induces conformational changes of transmembrane domain 6/7 (TM6/7) that are related to PTH1R activation and strengthens the residue-residue communication within PTH and TMD allosterically. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence of Ca2+ions potentiates the interaction between PTH and PTH1R via steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, while the point mutation in the PTH (PTHR25C) weakens the binding of PTH and PTH1R. These results support that Ca2+ions might further prolong the residence time of PTH on PTH1R and facilitate the positive allostery of PTH1R. Together, the present work provides new insights into the allosteric regulation mechanism of GPCRs induced by ions and related drug design targeting the PTH1R allosteric pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5110-5119
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


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