Motivating the New Generation: Using Flipped Classroom and ARCS Model to Enhance Block-Based Programming Education

Wan Chong Choi, Huey Lei, António José Mendes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


This Research-to-Practice full paper presents an explorative study investigating the effects of flipped learning on the learning motivation of primary school students enrolled in a block-based programming course. Technology development has increased the importance of information technology-related competencies for the new generation. Programming skills are essential in various industries nowadays. Thus, programming education has become necessary to cultivate students' relevant abilities to meet the rapid pace of development. Programming learning encourages students to think logically and systematically, solve problems effectively, and develop computational thinking skills. However, learning programming is challenging for many students for different reasons, such as its inherent complexity, inadequate study methods, and pedagogical approaches unsuited to promote programming learning. Traditional teaching methods are often impersonalized and only suitable for some learning styles present in class. Moreover, the challenges encountered by the students as novice programmers are attributed to their low learning motivation. To learn to program, students must comprehend different syntactic conventions, complex instructions, and logical operators and actively engage in practical learning activities, often facing difficulties. This may reduce their learning motivation leading to failure and dropout. To accommodate different learning styles and increase students' motivation, this study employed the ARCS motivation model to design various innovative activities in a flipped classroom setting to increase students' motivation and improve teachers' teaching effectiveness. The study utilized a pretest-posttest method with two groups of grade five students to compare the effectiveness of teaching and learning between the flipped and traditional classroom students. The study's findings revealed that the flipped classroom experimental group showed significantly higher learning motivation than the students in the control group. Moreover, it was found that different flipped classroom activities, including the use of gamification, flipped videos, self-study, self-questioning, self-assessment, split programming tasks, group cooperation, and demonstration activities, had a positive influence on various sub-dimensions of the ARCS model, such as attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE 2023 - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9798350336429
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
Event53rd IEEE ASEE Frontiers in Education International Conference, FIE 2023 - College Station, United States
Duration: 18 Oct 202321 Oct 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE
ISSN (Print)1539-4565


Conference53rd IEEE ASEE Frontiers in Education International Conference, FIE 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityCollege Station


  • ARCS Model
  • Block-based programming education
  • Computer science
  • Flipped classroom
  • Motivation


Dive into the research topics of 'Motivating the New Generation: Using Flipped Classroom and ARCS Model to Enhance Block-Based Programming Education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this