Particle engineering for pulmonary drug delivery

Albert H.L. Chow, Henry H.Y. Tong, Pratibhash Chattopadhyay, Boris Y. Shekunov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

574 Citations (Scopus)


With the rapidly growing popularity and sophistication of inhalation therapy, there is an increasing demand for tailor-made inhalable drug particles capable of affording the most efficient delivery to the lungs and the most optimal therapeutic outcomes. To cope with this formulation demand, a wide variety of novel particle technologies have emerged over the past decade. The present review is intended to provide a critical account of the current goals and technologies of particle engineering for the development of pulmonary drug delivery systems. These technologies cover traditional micronization and powder blending, controlled solvent crystallization, spray drying, spray freeze drying, particle formation from liquid dispersion systems, supercritical fluid processing and particle coating. The merits and limitations of these technologies are discussed with reference to their applications to specific drug and/or excipient materials. The regulatory requirements applicable to particulate inhalation products are also reviewed briefly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-437
Number of pages27
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007


  • Aerosols
  • Crystalline and amorphous solids
  • Inhalers
  • Micro- and nanoparticles
  • Micronization
  • Particle size
  • Respiratory drug delivery
  • Spray drying
  • Spray freeze drying
  • Supercritical fluids


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