PCTMF-Net: heart sound classification with parallel CNNs-transformer and second-order spectral analysis

Rongsheng Wang, Yaofei Duan, Yukun Li, Dashun Zheng, Xiaohong Liu, Chan Tong Lam, Tao Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Heart disease is a common condition worldwide and has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The electrocardiogram (PCG) is a safe, painless, and non-invasive test that captures bioacoustic information reflecting the function of the heart by capturing the acoustic signal of the patient’s heart. Nowadays, based on biosignal processing and artificial intelligence technologies, automated heart sound classification is playing an increasingly important role in clinical applications. In this paper, we propose a new parallel CNNs-transformer network with multi-scale feature context aggregation (PCTMF-Net). It combines the advantages of CNNs and transformer to achieve efficient heart sound classification. In PCTMF-Net, firstly, the heart tone signal features are extracted using the second-order spectral analysis, and a transformer-based MHTE-4 (multi-head transformer encoder with four attention heads) is designed to encode and aggregate the contextual information, and then, two CNNs feature extractors are designed in parallel with MHTE-4 to capture the hierarchical features. Finally, the feature vectors obtained from CNNs and MHTE-4 through feature fusion in PCTMF-Net will be fed into the fully connected layer for predicting the classification results of heart sounds. In addition, we perform validation based on two publicly available mutually exclusive heart sound datasets and conduct extensive experiments and comparisons of existing algorithms under different metrics. The experimental results show that our proposed method achieves 99.36% accuracy on the Yaseen dataset and 93% accuracy on the PhysioNet dataset. It surpasses current algorithms in terms of accuracy, recall and F1-score metrics. The aim of this study is to apply these new techniques and methods to improve the diagnostic accuracy and validity of heart disease for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3811-3822
Number of pages12
JournalVisual Computer
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Classification of heart sound
  • Heart sound signal
  • Higher-order spectrum
  • Parallel convolution and transformer


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