Personal Learning Environments and Personalized Learning in the Education Field: Challenges and Future Trends

Yunfeng Zhang, Xiaoshu Xu, Menglin Zhang, Na Cai, Vivian Ngan Lin Lei

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) represent a paradigm shift in the educational field. PLEs empower learners to take more ownership of their learning and to be successful lifelong learners. In the digital era, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) makes Personalized Learning (PL) possible, which is a major step toward the implementation of Personalized Learning Environments at all levels of education. Through tailoring the design to students’ personal strengths, weaknesses, and interests, PLEs are gradually gaining ground in applied degree education. However, being new educational approaches, PLEs should start from K-12 and go through lifelong education. This study tried to investigate the status quo of PLEs and PL applications in primary and secondary schools worldwide, especially in the U.S., the U.K., and mainland China. Through literature review, the study analyzed the main challenges of PLEs implementation and predicted its future development. It was suggested that future research in PLEs and PL should focus on systematic reforms rather than single or limited variable interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLecture Notes in Educational Technology
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Educational Technology
ISSN (Print)2196-4963
ISSN (Electronic)2196-4971


  • Challenges
  • PLEs
  • Personal learning environment
  • Personalized learning
  • Primary school
  • Secondary school


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