Preparation and in vitro evaluation of ethosomal total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides loaded by a transmembrane pH-gradient method

Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Huanxiang Liu, Guoqiang Zhang, Xin'An Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel transmembrane pH gradient active loading method to prepare alkaloids binary ethosomes was developed in this work. Using this novel method, binary ethosomes containing total alkaloids extracted from Sophora alopecuroides (TASA) were prepared successfully at the temperature below the phase transition temperature (Tc) of the phosphatidyl choline (PC). Several factors affecting this method were investigated. The qualities of the TASA binary ethosomes were characterized by the shape, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency (EE). The percutaneous absorption study of TASA binary ethosomes was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and Franz diffusion cells. The results showed that more than 90% sophoridine, 47% matrine, 35% sophocarpine, and 32% lemannine in TASA were entrapped within 1 h at 40°C, with an efficiency improvement of 8.87, 8.10, 7.63, and 7.78-fold than those observed in passive loading method. Transdermal experiments showed that the penetration depth and fluorescence intensity of Rhodamine B from binary ethosome prepared by pH gradient active loading method were much greater than that from binary ethosome prepared by passive loading method or hydroalcoholic solution. These results suggested transmembrane pH gradient active loading method may be an effective method to prepare alkaloids ethosomal systems at the temperatures below the Tc of PC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1350-1358
Number of pages9
JournalAAPS PharmSciTech
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Sophora alopecuroides
  • alkaloids
  • ethosomes
  • pH gradient
  • transdermal delivery

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