Real-time smoke simulation with improved turbulence by spatial adaptive vorticity confinement

Shengfeng He, Hon Cheng Wong, Wai Man Pang, Un Hong Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Turbulence modeling has recently drawn many attentions in fluid animation to generate small-scale rolling features. Being one of the widely adopted approaches, vorticity confinement method re-injects lost energy dissipation back to the flow. However, previous works suffer from deficiency when large vorticity coefficient ε is used, due to the fact that constant ε is applied all over the simulated domain. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to enhance the visual effect by employing an adaptive vorticity confinement which varies the strength with respect to the helicity instead of a user-defined constant. To further improve fine details in turbulent flows, we are not only applying our proposed vorticity confinement to low-resolution grid, but also on a finer grid to generate sub-grid level turbulence. Since the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved only in low-resolution grid, this saves a significant amount of computation. Several experiments demonstrate that our method can produce realistic smoke animation with enhanced turbulence effects in real-time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-114
Number of pages8
JournalComputer Animation and Virtual Worlds
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • fluid simulation
  • smoke animation
  • turbulence
  • vorticity confinement


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