Purpose: We present our experience with retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection. We compared the clinical efficacy of this treatment for chyluria with that of open surgery. Materials and Methods: From January 1998 to June 2004, 53 patients (55 renal units) with chyluria underwent renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection via the retroperitoneoscopic and conventional open approaches. The diagnosis of chyluria was confirmed by the ether test and the side of chylous reflux was determined by cystoscopy. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative intestinal recovery and hospital stay were evaluated. Increases in hemoglobin and serum albumin were compared before and after surgery during followup. Results: Retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection or open surgery was performed successfully in all patients. In terms of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative intestinal recovery and hospital stay retroperitoneoscopy was superior to conventional open surgery. During retroperitoneoscopy the inferior vena cava was injured in 1 case but repaired successfully by laparoscopy without conversion to open surgery. Postoperative gross hematuria in 1 case disappeared 4 days later. In the open surgery group the renal segmental artery was inadvertently injured in 1 case and anastomosis was performed successfully. Wound healing was delayed in 1 case due to hypoalbuminemia. Recurrence developed in 2 patients during the 6 to 84-month followup. Conclusions: Retroperitoneoscopic renal pedicle lymphatic disconnection for chyluria has the advantages of minimal invasion and rapid recovery compared with open surgery.