Revealing the Positive Binding Cooperativity Mechanism between the Orthosteric and the Allosteric Antagonists of CCR2 by Metadynamics and Gaussian Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Xiaoli An, Qifeng Bai, Zhitong Bing, Hongli Liu, Qianqian Zhang, Huanxiang Liu, Xiaojun Yao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its endogenous CC chemokine ligands are associated with numerous inflammatory, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. CCR2 is becoming an attractive target in the treatment of autoimmune disease and neurodegenerative diseases. The orthosteric antagonist BMS-681 and allosteric antagonist CCR2-RA-[R] of CCR2 show positive binding cooperativity. We performed well-tempered metadynamics simulations and Gaussian accelerated MD simulations to reveal the influence of the orthosteric antagonist on the unbinding of allosteric antagonist of CCR2. We revealed different unbinding pathways of CCR2-RA-[R] in binary complex CCR2-VT5 and ternary complex CCR2-73R-VT5. The different unbinding pathways of CCR2-RA-[R] are due to the conformational dynamics of TM6. We obtained the significant conformational differences of the intracellular side of TM6 upon CCR2 binding to different ligands by GaMD simulation. The conformational dynamics of TM6 are consistent with the unbinding pathway analysis. GaMD simulations indicate that BMS-681 binding restricts the bend of intracellular side of TM6 by stabilizing the extracellular sides of TM6 and TM7. The charged residues Arg2065.43 of TM5 and Glu2917.39 of TM7 play key roles in stabling TM7 and TM6. TM6 and TM7 are crucial components in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. Our results illustrate the conformational details about the effect of the orthosteric antagonist on the allosteric antagonist of CCR2. The conformational dynamics of CCR2 upon binding to different ligands can provide a rational basis for development of allosteric ligands of CCR2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-637
Number of pages10
JournalACS Chemical Neuroscience
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CC chemokine receptor 2
  • Gaussian accelerated MD simulation
  • allosteric antagonist
  • binding cooperativity
  • metadynamics simulation
  • orthosteric antagonist

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