Robust block and gray-level histogram based watermarking scheme

Chi Man Pun, Xiaochen Yuan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


As one of the crucial problems in watermarking, robustness against geometric distortion and JPEG compression becomes more than challenging and problematic. In this paper, a robust watermarking scheme based on block histogram and gray-level histogram is proposed for gray images. For embedding, the scheme orders the pixel gray-levels and groups the pixels into blocks of dynamic size, each of which has the same number of gray-levels, thus generates the block histogram. According to the block histogram, the Number-KEY and Value-KEY generate. Then the gray-level histogram is modified to form a specially distributed, indicating the embedding bits. For extraction, the watermarked image, the Number-KEY, and the Value-KEY are adopted together to get the watermark bits. Experimental results show that the scheme is highly robust against not only JPEG compression, but also geometric attacks and common signal processing such as median filtering. The comparison results between the proposed scheme and the existing methods indicate its advantages.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2009 - 10th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Proceedings
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes
Event10th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, PCM 2009 - Bangkok, Thailand
Duration: 15 Dec 200918 Dec 2009

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume5879 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference10th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, PCM 2009


  • Block histogram
  • Geometric attack
  • Gray-level histogram
  • JPEG compression
  • Median filtering
  • Watermarking


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