Social integration of lifestyle migrants: the case of Sanya snowbirds

Hongxian Zhang, Libo Yan, Hoffer M. Lee, Qingsheng Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Lifestyle migrants annually travel to a given destination and live there for a certain period of time. The extended sojourn leads to the issue of social integration, which plays a crucial role in relieving conflicts and constructing a harmonious society. However, existing studies have paid little attentions to the measurement of the social integration of lifestyle migrants. To address this research gap, this study explores the meaning and structure of lifestyle migrants’ integration, and develops a measurement model to better understand the dynamic process of integration. The reliability and validity of the assessment were tested with exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance was conducted to further validate the scale. The results disclosed three dimensions of the social integration of lifestyle migrants: emotional attachment, cultural adaptation, and social participation. This measurement is an addition to existing literature and can serve as a foundation for future research. The scale also provides a practical instrument for monitoring the integration of lifestyle migrants, which has many implications for the destination management and planning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2825-2838
Number of pages14
JournalCurrent Issues in Tourism
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • China
  • Lifestyle migration
  • cultural adaptation
  • emotional attachment
  • social integration
  • social participation


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