Spatial distribution characteristics and pollution evaluation of soil heavy metals in Wulongdong National Forest Park

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Abstract

To scrutinize the spatial distribution attributes of soil heavy metal content and discern its pollution status within the expanse of Wulongdong National Forest Park, a meticulous investigation is imperative. Three altitude gradients of 900, 1000, and 1069 m were selected on the shady and sunny slopes of Wulongdong National Forest Park, and a total of 300 soil sample points were collected. Soil samples were collected in layers, and the contents of seven soil heavy metal elements, Cr, Cd, Hg, Ni, Se, As, and Pb, were measured. With regard to the national soil element background values, the single factor index method, Nemerow index method, and pollution load index were employed to undertake a thorough assessment of soil heavy metal pollution. (1) The contents of heavy metal elements Cr, Se, As, and Pb in the 0–20 cm soil layer of Wulongdong National Forest Park are lower than the national soil element background value and the Henan soil element background value; the Cd and Hg contents exceed the national soil element background value. The value and Henan soil element background value are 2.2 times and 2.92 times the national soil element background value, and 2.75 times and 9.5 times the Henan soil element background value respectively; Ni content is lower than the Henan soil element background value, but higher than the national soil element background value. The background value is 1.03 times its content. The coefficients of variation of the contents of seven heavy metal elements are all greater than 50%, among which Hg shows extreme variation, and the remaining six are highly variable. (2) In the same soil layer, the Cr and As contents are lower on sunny slopes than on shady slopes, and the contents of Pb, Ni, and Hg are generally higher on sunny slopes than on shady slopes. On sunny slopes, the contents of As, Cd, and Hg decrease with increasing altitude, and the Se content increases with increasing altitude; while on shady slopes, the contents of Cr, Se, and As decrease with increasing altitude, and Pb and Hg content increase with the increase of altitude; the content of heavy metal element As increases with the deepening of the soil layer on shady slopes, and the Hg content decreases with the deepening of the soil layer on sunny slopes. The contents of other heavy metal elements have no obvious regularity among different slope directions, altitudes and soil layers. (3) The single factor index evaluation results show that in the 0 ~ 20c soil layer and on the sunny slope, Hg is heavily polluted, Cd is moderately polluted, Ni is lightly polluted, and Cr, Se, As, and Pb are all non-polluted; On the shady slope, Cd and Hg are moderately polluted, and the other five heavy metal elements are in a non-polluting state. (4) The Nemerow index method evaluation results show that in the 0 ~ 20 cm soil layer, the soil on sunny slopes is significantly more polluted by heavy metals than on shady slopes, and the main pollutants are Ni, Cd and Hg. (5) In the 0 ~ 20 cm soil layer of Wulongdong National Forest Park, the three heavy metal elements Ni, Cd and Hg have reached pollution levels, of which Ni is slightly polluted, Cd and Hg are moderately or above polluted; the sunny slope soil is slightly polluted. Heavy metal pollution, no heavy metal pollution on shady slopes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8880
JournalScientific Reports
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024

Keywords

  • Forest soil
  • Heavy metal pollution
  • Pollution assessment
  • Spatial distribution
  • Wulongdong National Forest Park

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