Spatiotemporal Analysis of Gastrointestinal Tumor (GI) with Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) Based on Heterogeneous Background

Zhenjie Yang, Sanwei He, Huiyuan Zhang, Meifang Li, Yuqing Liang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study is to explore hotspots or clusters of gastrointestinal tumors (GI) and their spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and the changes over time in 293 villages and communities in Jianze County, central China, through the kernel density estimation (KDE) method based on the rarely considered heterogeneous background. The main findings were: (1) Heterogeneous background impact: there were substantial differences in the GI case rate among people of different ages and genders in Jianze County. Specifically, the GI case rate was significantly higher in the elderly population over 65 than in the population under 65, and higher in men than in women. (2) GI in Jianze County exhibited spatial specific and aggregated hotspots. The high-value spatial clusters were mainly located in Hujindian Town in the northern county, Wupu Town and Geputan Town in the middle, and Xiaxindian Town in the south. Some villages had persistent hot spots for multiple years. (3) Most GI hotspots in Jianze County were concentrated in areas with both high density of local chemical plants and with water systems in the neighbourhood. We expect that this study provides a scientific basis for exploring unknown risk factors of tumor occurrence from a spatial perspective in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7751
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • gastrointestinal tumor (GI)
  • heterogeneous background
  • spatiotemporal distribution


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