Surface characterization of salmeterol xinafoate powders by inverse gas chromatography at finite coverage

Henry H.Y. Tong, Boris Y. Shekunov, Peter York, Albert H.L. Chow

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12 Citations (Scopus)


In our previous studies, surface analysis by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution (zero coverage) was performed on four salmeterol xinafoate (SX) powdered samples, viz, two supercritical CO2-processed Form I (SX-I) and Form II (SX-II) polymorphs, a commercial granulated SX (GSX) raw material and its micronized product (MSX). Both GSX and MSX are also of the same Form I polymorph. To further probe the differences in surface properties between the samples, the present study has extended the IGC analysis to the finite concentration range of selected energy probes. The adsorption isotherms of the SX samples were constructed using (nonpolar) octane, (polar acidic) chloroform, and (polar basic) tetrahydrofuran as liquid probes. Type II adsorption isotherms with weak knees were observed with each probe for all SX Form I samples. The extents of probe adsorption by the samples at various relative pressures follow the rank order: SX-II > GSX ≈ MSX > SX-I, indicating that the SX-I has fewer high-energy adsorption sites than GSX and MSX. Type III isotherms were observed for SX-II with the two polar probes, indicative of weak adsorbate-adsorbent interactions. The additional information generated shows that IGC analysis at finite coverage is a valuable complementary tool to that at infinite dilution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-700
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005


  • Finite coverage
  • Inverse gas chromatography
  • Salmeterol xinafoate
  • Supercritical fluid processing


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