Purpose: To our knowledge we introduce the technique of anatomical retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods: From February 2000 to October 2005 anatomical retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy was performed in 800 consecutive patients with adrenal lesions using a 3 port lateral retroperitoneal approach. After incising Gerota's fascia 3 relatively bloodless planes were entered consecutively to expose and separate the adrenal gland. When entering the first dissection plane between the perirenal fat and anterior renal fascia located at the superomedial side of the kidney, the adrenal could be identified at the initial stage of the operation. The following dissections proceeded in the plane between the posterior renal fascia and the lateral aspect of perirenal fat, and then in the avascular plane located on the parenchymal surface of the upper renal pole. The adrenal vein was dealt with at the final stage. Operative time was defined as the time from skin incision to skin closure. Results: Mean ± SE operative time was 45 ± 19.1 minutes (range 25 to 230) and mean estimated blood loss was 25 ± 10.6 ml (range 5 to 200). Average time to oral intake and ambulation were 1.2 and 1.0 day, respectively. Minor postoperative complications occurred in 12 patients (1.5%). Major complications and perioperative mortality were not observed. The procedures resulted in marked clinical improvements in patients with a hormone secreting tumor, except in 6 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusions: Anatomical retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe, effective, technically efficient procedure for surgical adrenal diseases.
- adrenal gland
- retroperitoneal space