Background The inhibitors blocking the interaction between programmed cell death protein 1(PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1) can activate the immune response of T cell and eliminate cancer cells. The crystallographic studies have provided structural insights of the interactive interfaces between PD-L1 and its protein ligands. However, the hotspot residues on PD-L1 as well as structural and energetic basis for different protein ligands still need to be further investigated. Methods Molecular modeling methods including molecular dynamics simulation, per-residue free energy decomposition, virtual alanine scanning mutagenesis and residue-residue contact analysis were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the interactions between PD-L1 and different protein ligands. Results The results of virtual alanine scanning mutagenesis suggest that Y56, Q66, M115, D122, Y123, R125 are the hotspot residues on PD-L1. The residue-residue contact analysis further shows that PD-1 interacts with PD-L1 mainly by F and G strands while monoclonal antibodies like avelumab and BMS-936559 mainly interact with PD-L1 by CDR2 and CDR3 loops of the heavy chain. Conclusions A structurally similar β-hairpin peptide with 13 or 14 residues was extracted from each protein ligand and these β-hairpin peptides were found tightly binding to the putative hotspot residues on PD-L1. General significance This study recognizes the hotspot residues on PD-L1 and uncovers the common structural and energetic basis of different protein ligands binding to PD-L1. These results will be valuable for the design of small molecule or peptide inhibitors targeting on PD-L1.
- Molecular dynamics simulation
- Monoclonal antibody
- Virtual alanine scanning mutagenesis