Xiaoqing: A Q&A model for glaucoma based on LLMs

Xiaojuan Xue, Deshiwei Zhang, Chengyang Sun, Yiqiao Shi, Rongsheng Wang, Tao Tan, Peng Gao, Sujie Fan, Guangtao Zhai, Menghan Hu, Yue Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Glaucoma is one of the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Individuals affected by glaucoma, including patients and their family members, frequently encounter a deficit in dependable support beyond the confines of clinical environments. Seeking advice via the internet can be a difficult task due to the vast amount of disorganized and unstructured material available on these sites, nevertheless. This research explores how Large Language Models (LLMs) can be leveraged to better serve medical research and benefit glaucoma patients. We introduce Xiaoqing, a Natural Language Processing (NLP) model specifically tailored for the glaucoma field, detailing its development and deployment. To evaluate its effectiveness, we conducted two forms of experiments: comparative and experiential. In the comparative analysis, we presented 22 glaucoma-related questions in simplified Chinese to three medical NLP models (Xiaoqing LLMs, HuaTuo, Ivy GPT) and two general models (ChatGPT-3.5 and ChatGPT-4), covering a range of topics from basic glaucoma knowledge to treatment, surgery, research, management standards, and patient lifestyle. Responses were assessed for informativeness and readability. The experiential experiment involved glaucoma patients and non-patients interacting with Xiaoqing, collecting and analyzing their questions and feedback on the same criteria. The findings demonstrated that Xiaoqing notably outperformed the other models in terms of informativeness and readability, suggesting that Xiaoqing is a significant advancement in the management and treatment of glaucoma in China. We also provide a Web-based version of Xiaoqing, allowing readers to directly experience its functionality. The Web-based Xiaoqing is available at https://qa.glaucoma-assistant.com//qa.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108399
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Glaucoma
  • Large Language Models (LLMs)
  • Medical NLP system
  • Ophthalmology question and answer system


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