Zero-fare tours through the lens of a fatal conflict

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Forced shopping associated with zero-fare tours may cause conflicts between tour participants and local guides. This study applied the attribution theory to examine bloggers' online responses to a tragic event caused by forced shopping in Hong Kong, and the purpose was to explore why the zero-fare phenomenon is robust and who should be responsible for the unethical business. The stakeholders were identified and categorized into four types within a two-dimension (interest and influence) framework. The bloggers’ attribution processes disclosed the causes and responsibility holders of zero-fare tours. The study results have implications for destinations that depend on a price-driven market.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-233
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hospitality and Tourism Management
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Attribution theory
  • Chinese outbound travels
  • Forced shopping
  • Group package tours
  • Stakeholder analysis


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